Spelling Rules -- Making Noun Plurals - Page 1

Rule 1: To form the plural of most English words that don't end in -s,-z, -x, -sh, -ch, or -ss, add an -s to make a plural of most words.
  1. star --- stars
  2. pencil --- pencils
  3. book --- books
  4. slab --- slabs
  1. step --- steps
  2. pad --- pads
  3. bra --- bras
  4. stem --- stems
Rule 2: To form the plural of most English words that end in -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh, and -ss add an -es to the word.
  1. bus --- buses
  2. buzz --- buzzes
  3. box --- boxes
  1. match --- matches
  2. church --- churches
  3. kiss --- kisses
Some Exceptions to Rule 2: Note that the -z is doubled
1. quiz -- quizzes 2. fizz -- fizzes 3. whiz -- whizzes
Rule 3: To from a plural of most English words that end in a vowel plus -y add an -s to the word
1. day - days 2. pulley - pulleys 3. boy - boys 4. buy - buys
Rule 4: Singular nouns ending in silent "s" do not change their forms in the plural. However, the "s" ending is pronounced when the plural from is used. See below.
1. one corps - two corps 2. one rendezvous -- two rendezvous
Rule 5: To form a plural of most English words that end in a consonant plus a -y, change the y to an i and add an -es.
  1. theory -- theories
  2. lily -- lilies
  3. empty -- empties
  1. lady -- ladies
  2. candy -- candies
  3. penny -- pennies
Rule 6: For words that end in -is. change the -is to -es to make the plural
1. thesis -- theses 2. oasis -- oases 3. analysis -- analyses
Rule 7: Some words that end in -f or -fe have plurals that end in -ves.
1. elf - elves 2. calf - calves 3. shelf - shelves 4. wife - wives
Some exceptions to rule 7 of words that end in -f that don't follow the rule.
1. oaf - oafs 2. chef - chefs 3. cliff - cliffs 4. belief - beliefs
1. tariff - tariffs 2. bailiff - bailiffs 3. roof - roofs 4. chief - chiefs
Rule 8: Many words that have come into English from other languages follow their original methods of constructing plurals
  1. alumnus - alumni
  2. analysis - analyses
  3. cherub - cherubim
  4. diagnosis - diagnoses
  1. focus - focuses of foci
  2. fungus - fungi or funguses
  3. index - indexes or indices
  4. radius - radii