People's Republic of China Map 15. Republic of China -- 1911 to 1949 - 38 Years

The revolutionary leader was Sun Yat-sen. Sun's political philosophy centered on the Three Principles of the People: "nationalism, democracy, and people's livelihood." The principle of nationalism called for overthrowing the Manchus and ending foreign hegemony over China. The republican revolution broke out on October 10, 1911, in Hubei Province, among discontented modernized army units whose anti-Qing plot had been uncovered. The revolt quickly spread to neighboring cities.

By late November, fifteen of the twenty-four provinces had declared their independence of the Qing empire. On January 1, 1912, Sun was inaugurated in Nanjing as the provisional president of the new Chinese republic. But power in Beijing already had passed to the commander-in-chief of the imperial army, Yuan Shikai, the strongest regional military leader at the time. To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, Sun agreed to Yuan's demand that China be united under a Beijing government headed by Yuan. On February 12, 1912, the last Manchu emperor, the child Puyi, abdicated. On March 10, in Beijing, Yuan Shikai was sworn in as provisional president of the Republic of China.      Back to Chinese Dynasty Choices - Page 2

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Republic of China Map