After the death of Marx and Engels, almost all the parties of the Second
International betrayed Marxism, with the exception of the Bolshevik Party led
by Lenis. Lenin inherited, defended and developed Marxism in the struggle
against the revisionism of the Second International. The struggle focused in
the question of the dictatorship of the proletariat. In denouncing the old
revisionists, Lenin time and time again stated:
Those who recognize
the class struggle are not yet Marxist....Only he is a Marxist who extends the
recognition of the class struggle to the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Lenin led the proletariat of Russia in winning the victory of the Great October
Socialist Revolution and founding the first socialist state. Through his great
revolutionary practice in leading the dictatorship of the proletariat, Lenin
perceived the danger of the restoration of capitalism and the protracted nature
of class struggle.
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The transition from capitalism to Communism represents an entire historical
epoch. Until this epoch has terminated, the exploiters inevitably cherish the
hope is converted into restoration, and this hope is converted into attempts at
Lenin stated: . . . the bourgeoisie, whose resistance is increased tenfold by
its overthrow (even i only in one country), and whose power lies not only in
the strength and durability of the international connections of the bourgeoisie,
but also in the force of habit, in the strength of small production. For,
unfortunately, small production is still very, very widespread in the world,
and small production engenders capitalism and the bourgeoisie continuously,
daily, hourly, spontaneously, and on a mass scale.
His conclusion was: "For all these reasons he dictatorship of the proletariat
is essential." Lenin also stated the "the new bourgeoisie" was "arising from
among our Soviet government employees." He pointed out that the danger of
restoration also came from capitalist encirclement; The imperialist countries
"will never miss an opportunity for military intervention, as they put it,
i.e., to strangle Soviet power."